Timelines
Right to Be Confronted by Adverse Witnesses

  • 1791
    Sixth Amendment Is Ratified

  • 1895
    Testimony Of Dead Witnesses Allowable

  • 1899
    Testimony From Another Trial Is Inadmissible

  • 1900
    Witness Must Be Present At Trial

  • 1965
    Confrontation Clause Applies To State Trials, Too

  • 1968
    Outside Statement Of Co-Defendant Is Unconstitutional
    Witness's Use Of Alias Violates Confrontation Clause

  • 1970
    Use Of Witness's Prior Testimony Is Upheld
    Out-Of-Court Statement Can Be Admitted Into Evidence

  • 1986
    Alleged Co-Conspirators' Outside Statements Admissible

  • 1988
    Screen Blocking Witness From Defendant Held Unconstitutional

  • 1990
    Child Sex-Abuse Victims Can Testify On Closed-Circuit TV

  • 1998
    Court Extends Ruling On Co-Defendant's Outside Statement

  • 2006
    6th Amendment Issues Arise In Palestinian Case
    911 Tapes Are Admissible As Evidence