Appendix 1

Delegates to the Constitutional Convention

Connecticut

Oliver Ellsworth (1745–1807) was born in Windsor, Connecticut. He attended Yale, graduated from the College of New Jersey (which later became Princeton), and studied law. He served in the Connecticut General Assembly, and the Continental Congress. After becoming a judge of the Connecticut Superior Court, Ellsworth was elected to the U.S. Senate as a Federalist from 1789 to 1796. There, he sponsored the Judiciary Act of 1789. He resigned from the Senate to become chief justice of the United States from 1796 until 1800, when he retired. He did not sign the Constitution.

William Samuel Johnson (1727–1819) was born in Stratford, Connecticut. He graduated from both Yale and Harvard and studied law. He served in the colonial legislature and as a delegate to the Stamp Act Congress in 1765. Connecticut sent him as agent extraordinary to the court of England to determine the colony’s title to Indian lands from 1767 to 1771. He was then a judge of the Connecticut Supreme Court, and a member of the Continental Congress. Johnson was the first president of Columbia College of New York City, from 1787 to 1800; and as a Federalist served as a U.S. senator from Connecticut from 1789 to 1791. He signed the Constitution.

Roger Sherman (1721–1793) was born in Newton, Massachusetts. After working as a surveyor of New Haven County in Connecticut, he studied law and became a member of the Connecticut legislature for various terms between 1755 and 1785. He was a judge of the state’s superior court, a member of the executive committee that ran the colony’s day-to-day functions during the American Revolution called the council of safety, and a member of the Continental Congress. Sherman signed the Declaration of Independence and was a member of the committee that prepared the Articles of Confederation. He was mayor of New Haven and served as a Federalist in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1789 to 1791, and in the U.S. Senate from 1791 until his death. Signed.

Delaware

Richard Bassett (1745–1815) was born in Cecil County, Maryland. He studied law and practiced in Delaware. He was a captain of a Delaware troop during the Revolutionary War and a member of Delaware’s constitutional conventions in 1776 and 1792. He also served in the state legislature. He was elected to the U.S. Senate and served from 1789 to 1793, when he became chief justice of the state’s court of common pleas. A Federalist, Bassett served as governor of Delaware from 1799 to 1801. Signed.

Gunning Bedford (1742–1797) was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was serving as a lieutenant colonel in the Continental Army when he was wounded in the Battle of White Plains. He studied law and became a member of the Delaware General Assembly. He was elected to the Continental Congress but declined to serve. Bedford served as governor of Delaware from 1796 until he died the following year. Signed.

Jacob Broom (1752–1810) was born in Wilmington, Delaware. He prepared George Washington’s maps for the Battle of Brandywine, in 1776. He served as burgess (or mayor) of Wilmington and as a member of the state legislature. Broom became the first postmaster of Wilmington, from 1790 to 1792, and devoted himself to diverse business interests, among them operating a machine shop and cotton mill. Signed.

John Dickinson (1732–1808) was born in Talbot County, Maryland, and moved as a child to Dover, Delaware. He studied law in Philadelphia and London and practiced in Philadelphia. He was a member of both the Delaware and Pennsylvania legislatures, a delegate to the Stamp Act Congress of 1765, and a member of the Continental Congress from both Pennsylvania and Delaware. Dickinson was a brigadier general of Pennsylvania militia, governor of Delaware in 1781, and governor of Pennsylvania from 1782 to 1785. Signed.

George Read (1733–1798) was born in Cecil County, Maryland. He studied law and practiced in New Castle, Delaware. He served as attorney general for lower Delaware, as a mem­ber of the colonial legislature, and as a member of the Conti­nental Congress, where he signed the Declaration of Indepen­dence. He served in the Delaware legislature and as a judge of the U.S. Court of Appeals. Read represented Delaware at the Annapolis Convention in 1786, and served in the U.S. Senate as a Federalist from 1789 until 1793, when he became chief justice of Delaware. Signed.

Georgia

Abraham Baldwin (1754–1807) was born in North Guilford, Connecticut. He graduated from Yale and became a minister and a teacher at Yale. During the Revolutionary War he served as a chaplain. He later studied law and moved to Augusta, Georgia, where he became a member of the Georgia House of Representatives and became president of the University of Georgia. A member of the Continental Congress, Baldwin was elected as a Democratic-Republican to the U.S. House of Representatives, where he served from 1789 to 1799, and then to the U.S. Senate from 1799 to 1807. The Senate elected Baldwin its president pro tempore. Signed.

William Few (1748–1828) was born near Baltimore, Maryland, and moved as a child to North Carolina. He studied law and practiced in Augusta, Georgia. He served in the state legislature and as a lieutenant colonel in the Georgia militia. After serving as a member of the Continental Congress, he was elected to the U.S. Senate and served from 1789 to 1793, when he was defeated in his run for reelection. Few became a judge of the circuit court of Georgia from 1794 to 1797 and then moved to New York City, where he served in the New York State assembly from 1802 to 1805, as well as state prison inspector and as a city alderman from 1813 to 1814. Signed.

William Houston (1755–1813) was born in Savannah, Georgia, and studied law in London. Although Houston’s father had been a member of the royal government of Georgia, the son joined the movement for independence. He served in the Continental Congress from 1783 to 1786. Did not sign.

William Pierce (1740–1789) was born in Georgia. During the Revolutionary War he served as an aide-de-camp to General Nathanael Greene. He became a merchant in Savannah, Georgia, a member of the Georgia House of Representatives, and a member of the Continental Congress. Did not sign.

Maryland

Daniel Carroll (1730–1796) was born in Upper Marlboro, Maryland. He attended Jesuit School in Maryland and St. Omer’s College in France. In the Continental Congress, he signed the Articles of Confederation. Carroll later was elected to the Maryland state senate and to the U.S. House of Representatives, where he served from 1789 to 1791. President George Washington appointed him as one of the commissioners for the new District of Columbia. Signed.

Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer (1723–1790) was born in Charles County, Maryland. He served as an agent for the last two proprietors of Maryland, became a member of the colonial court, and sat on the Maryland royal governor’s council until 1776. He then joined the state’s council of safety and was president of the first state senate. He was also a member of the Continental Congress and represented Maryland at the Mount Vernon Conference in 1785. Signed.

Luther Martin (1748–1826) was born in Brunswick, New Jersey, and graduated from the College of New Jersey (later Princeton). He moved to Maryland, where he taught and also studied law. He became attorney general of Maryland and joined the Baltimore Light Dragoons. Elected to the Continental Congress, he declined to serve. He led the fight against ratification of the Constitution by Maryland. He later became a defense lawyer for Supreme Court Justice Samuel Chase during his impeachment trial, in 1805, and for former Vice President Aaron Burr during his treason trial, in 1807. Once again becoming Maryland’s attorney general, he argued the losing side in the Supreme Court case of McCulloch v. Mary­land. Did not sign.

James McHenry (1753–1816) was born in Ballymena, Ireland, and immigrated to Philadelphia around 1771. He studied medicine, and during the Revolutionary War was surgeon in the Fifth Pennsylvania Battalion and secretary to General Washington. He became a member of the Maryland state senate, and later a member of the Continental Congress. He then served as secretary of war in the cabinets of George Washington and John Adams. Signed.

John Francis Mercer (1759–1821) was born in Stafford County, Virginia. He graduated from the College of William and Mary, studied law, and practiced in Williamsburg, Virginia. During the Revolutionary War he rose to lieutenant colonel of the Virginia cavalry. He was a delegate from Virginia to the Continental Congress before moving to Anne Arundel County, Maryland. There, he served in the Maryland House of Delegates and was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives, where he served from 1792 to 1794. He was governor of Maryland from 1801 to 1803. Did not sign.

Massachusetts

Elbridge Gerry (1744–1814) was born in Marblehead, Mas­sachusetts, and graduated from Harvard. He served in the colonial House of Representatives and in the Continental Congress, becoming a signer of the Declaration of Independence. Elected to the U.S. House of Representatives from 1789 to 1793, he was sent on a diplomatic mission to France in 1797. He became governor of Massachusetts from 1810 to 1811, and as a Democratic-Republican was elected Vice President of the United States with President James Madison, serving from 1813 until his death. When he died in 1814, he was on his way to preside over the U.S. Senate. Did not sign.

Nathaniel Gorham (1738–1796) was born in Charlestown, Massachusetts. He served in the colonial legislature and in the Continental Congress, becoming its president from 1786 to 1787. He was later a judge of the Massachusetts Court of Common Pleas. Signed.

Rufus King (1755–1827) was born in Scarboro, Maine (then part of Massachusetts). He graduated from Harvard, served in the Revolutionary War, studied law, and practiced in Newburyport, Massachusetts. King served in the Massachusetts legislature and the Continental Congress. He moved to New York City and became a member of the New York State as­sembly. He was elected to the U.S. Senate in 1789 and served until 1796, when he became U.S. minister to Great Britain. He later returned to serve in the Senate from 1813 to 1825, chairing the Foreign Relations Committee. King ran unsuccessfully as the Federalist candidate for Vice President in 1804, for governor of New York in 1816, and for President in 1816. Signed.

Caleb Strong (1745–1819) was born in Northampton, Massachusetts, and graduated from Harvard. He studied law and practiced in Northampton. During the Revolution he was a member of a committee of correspondence and safety, and served in the Massachusetts state legislature. He was elected to the Continental Congress, although he did not serve. He served in the U.S. Senate as a Federalist from 1789 to 1796, and was governor of Massachusetts from 1800 to 1807, and again from 1812 to 1816. Did not sign.

New Hampshire

Nicholas Gilman (1755–1814) was born in Exeter, New Hampshire. He served in the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War, and in the Continental Congress. He was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives, where he served from 1789 to 1797, chairing the Committee on Revisal and Unfinished Business. He then served as a Democratic-Republican in the U.S. Senate from 1805 until his death in 1814. Signed.

John Langdon (1741–1819) was born in Portsmouth, New Hampshire. After going to sea as a young man, he became a merchant. He served in the New Hampshire state legislature and in the Continental Congress. During the Revolutionary War he was in charge of the construction of several ships of war, equipped an expedition against the British, and commanded a company of soldiers at Saratoga. He served in the U.S. Senate from 1789 to 1801, and was elected the Senate’s first president pro tempore. During those years, his politics shifted from Federalist to Democratic-Republican. He returned to New Hampshire to serve again in the state legislature and as governor from 1805 to 1811. Signed.

New Jersey

David Brearly (1745–1790) was born near Trenton, New Jersey, and graduated from the College of New Jersey (later Princeton). He studied law and practiced in Allentown, New Jersey. During the Revolutionary War he rose to colonel in the state militia. He was elected chief justice of the New Jersey Supreme Court and served as an elector in the first Presidential election. President Washington appointed him to be a federal district judge. Signed.

Jonathan Dayton (1760–1824) was born in Elizabeth, New Jersey, graduated from the College of New Jersey (later Princeton), and studied law. In the Revolutionary War he served in two New Jersey regiments, rising to the rank of captain. He was Speaker of the New Jersey General Assembly. Elected to the U.S. House of Representatives, he served from 1791 to 1799, and became Speaker of the House and chairman of the Committee on Elections. He was then elected to the U.S. Senate as a Federalist, serving from 1799 to 1805. Dayton was arrested in 1807, charged with treasonous conspiracy with Vice President Aaron Burr, but he was released and never stood trial. He later served again in the New Jersey assembly. Signed.

William C. Houston (1746–1788) was born in Sumter District, South Carolina. He graduated from Princeton College and became a professor there until he resigned to serve as captain in the Somerset militia during the Revolutionary War. He was deputy secretary of the Continental Congress, member of the New Jersey colonial legislature, the council of safety in 1778, and the Continental Congress. After the war he studied law and practiced in Trenton, New Jersey. He was a delegate to the Annapolis Convention in 1786. Did not sign.

William Livingston (1723–1790) was born in Albany, New York. He graduated from Yale and studied law. He served in the New York State legislature before moving to Elizabeth, New Jersey. He served on the New Jersey Committee of Correspondence and in the Continental Congress. He commanded a New Jersey militia during the Revolution until he was elected governor of New Jersey. Active in the antislavery movement, he chaired the committee at the Constitutional Convention that reached a compromise on slavery. Signed.

William Paterson (1745–1806) was born in County Antrim, Ireland, and immigrated to Pennsylvania with his parents in 1747. He graduated from the College of New Jersey (later Princeton), studied law, and practiced in New Bromley, New Jersey. He was a member of the New Jersey legislature and state attorney general. Elected to the Continental Congress, he declined the office. He served in the U.S. Senate as a Federalist from 1789 to 1790, resigning to become governor of New Jersey. In 1793 he became an associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, where he served until his death. Signed.

New York

Alexander Hamilton (1757–1804) was born on Nevis in the British West Indies and immigrated to New Jersey in 1772. He graduated from King’s College (later Columbia), and became an aide-de-camp to General Washington during the Revolutionary War. He was a member of the Continental Congress, a delegate to the Annapolis Convention of 1786, and served in the New York State assembly. Hamilton was an author of The Federalist, in support of the Constitution’s ratification. He later studied and practiced law in New York City. He served as secretary of the treasury under President George Washington from 1789 to 1795. In 1804, he was mortally wounded in a duel with Vice President Aaron Burr. Signed.

John Lansing Jr. (1754–1829) was born in Albany, New York. He studied law and practiced in Albany. He became a member and Speaker of the New York State assembly, a member of the Continental Congress, and a justice of the New York State Supreme Court. In 1829 he disappeared after leaving his hotel to mail a letter. Did not sign.

Robert Yates (1738–1801) was born in Schenectady, New York. He studied law and practiced in Albany, where he was a member of the board of aldermen. During the Revolution, he served on the Albany committee of safety and the colonial legislature, and helped draft the first constitution for New York State. He was chief justice of the New York Supreme Court. Yates became an Anti-Federalist leader in New York. Did not sign.

North Carolina

William Blount (1749–1800) was born in Bertie County, North Carolina. He served as paymaster for the Continental troops in North Carolina, as a member of the state legislature, and a member of the Continental Congress. President Washington appointed Blount to be governor of the Territory South of the Ohio. He also served as superintendent of Indian affairs and chairman of the convention that wrote Tennessee’s first state constitution. He was then elected a U.S. senator from Tennessee and served from 1796 until the House voted to impeach him for a plan to incite the Creeks and Cherokees to aid the British in conquering the Spanish territory of West Florida. He was expelled from the Senate in 1797, but was elected to the Tennessee state senate. Signed.

William R. Davie (1756–1820) was born in Egremont, England, and migrated to South Carolina as a child. He attended Queen’s Museum College in Charlotte, North Carolina, and graduated from the College of New Jersey (later Princeton). He studied law and practiced in North Carolina. During the Revolutionary War, he was a colonel in a cavalry troop and was wounded in action. He later became commissary-general for the Carolina campaign. Although he left the convention without signing the Constitution, he was a leader in supporting its ratification in North Carolina. He became a founder of the University of North Carolina, and the state governor. In 1799, President John Adams appointed Davie a brigadier general in the U.S. Army and a peace commissioner to France. He was defeated when he ran for Congress in 1803. Did not sign.

Alexander Martin (1740–1807) was born in Hunterdon County, New Jersey, and graduated from the College of New Jersey (later Princeton). In 1756, he moved to Salisbury, North Carolina, where he became a merchant and a judge, and served in the state legislature. He was an officer during the Revolutionary War, and later became governor of North Carolina. He was elected to the Continental Congress but declined to serve. Martin served in the U.S. Senate from 1793 to 1799. When he was not reelected, he returned to the state senate. Did not sign.

Richard Dobbs Spaight (1758–1802) was born in New Bern, North Carolina. He attended the University of Glasgow in Scotland before returning to North Carolina in 1778. He joined the Continental Army and was a member of the state legislature and the Continental Congress. Spaight became governor of North Carolina and was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives as a Democratic-Republican, serving from 1798 to 1801. He was later mortally wounded in a duel with John Stanly, the man who succeeded him in Congress. Signed.

Hugh Williamson (1735–1819) was born in West Nottingham Township, Pennsylvania. He graduated from the University of Pennsylvania as a student in theology but became a professor of mathematics. After studying medicine in Scotland and Holland, he returned to practice medicine in Philadelphia. During the Revolutionary War he became surgeon general of the North Carolina troops. He served in the North Carolina legislature and the Continental Congress. Elected as a Federalist, he served in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1790 to 1793. He spent his last years as a writer in New York City. Signed.

Pennsylvania

George Clymer (1739–1813) was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. A merchant, he was captain of a volunteer company in the Revolutionary War, a member of the committee of safety, a member of the Continental Congress, and a signer of the Declaration of Independence. Clymer was also elected to the Pennsylvania legislature. He served in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1789 to 1791 and chaired the Committee on Election. When he left Congress he was appointed collector of excise duties, but resigned after the Whiskey Rebellion. Signed.

Thomas Fitzsimons (1741–1811) was born in Ireland and immigrated to Philadelphia, where he was clerk in a counting-house. He commanded a company of volunteer home guards during the Revolutionary War and was a member of the Continental Congress and the state legislature. He served in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1789 to 1795, until he lost his election for a fourth term. He became president of the Philadelphia Chamber of Commerce and a founder and director of the Bank of North America. Signed.

Benjamin Franklin (1706–1790) was born in Boston, Massachusetts, where he learned the printing trade. He moved to Philadelphia and founded the Pennsylvania Gazette and published Poor Richard’s Almanac. Franklin served as post­master of Philadelphia and a member of the colonial legislature. Pennsylvania sent him as its agent to London from 1757 to 1762 and 1764 to 1775. As a member of the Continental Congress he signed the Declaration of Independence. The Continental Congress sent him as a diplomatic commissioner and later minister to France, where he helped negotiate the treaty of peace with Great Britain. Signed.

Jared Ingersoll (1749–1822) was born in New Haven, Connecticut, and graduated from Yale. He received a legal education in London and practiced law in Philadelphia. He was a member of the Continental Congress in 1780, the first attorney general of Pennsylvania, and U.S. district attorney for the eastern district of Pennsylvania. After he lost his race as the Federalist candidate for Vice President in 1812, Ingersoll became presiding judge of the district court of Philadelphia County. Signed.

Thomas Mifflin (1744–1800) was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and graduated from the University of Pennsylvania. He served in the colonial legislature and the Continental Congress. During the Revolutionary War he was an aide-de-camp to General Washington and quartermaster general of the Continental Army. He served as Speaker of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives, president of its Supreme Executive Council, and governor of Pennsylvania. He was president of the state constitutional convention in 1790. Signed.

Gouverneur Morris (1752–1816) was born in New York City and graduated from King’s College (later Columbia Univer­sity). He studied law and practiced in New York City. After serving in the New York colonial legislature, he became a lieutenant colonel in the state militia, a member of the first council of safety, the state legislature, and the Continental Congress, where he signed the Articles of Confederation. In 1779 he moved to Philadelphia, where he became assistant superintendent of finance. He moved back to New York and then went to France as minister plenipotentiary. In 1800, he was elected as a Federalist to the U.S. Senate from New York, and served until 1803, when he lost his race for reelection. He was later chairman of the Erie Canal Commission. Signed.

Robert Morris (1734–1806) was born in Liverpool, England, and immigrated to Maryland as a child. He became a merchant in Philadelphia, a member of the Pennsylvania council of safety, and a member of the Continental Congress, where he signed the Declaration of Independence. During the Revolutionary War, Morris was national superintendent of finance. He also established the Bank of North America and served in the Pennsylvania state legislature. As a Federalist he served in the U.S. Senate from 1789 to 1795. Morris was imprisoned for debt resulting from his unsuccessful land speculations from 1798 to 1801. Signed.

James Wilson (1742–1798) was born in Carskerdo, Scotland, and attended the universities of St. Andrews, Glasgow, and Edinburgh. He immigrated to New York City in 1765 and then to Philadelphia, where he studied law; he practiced in Reading and Carlisle, Pennsylvania. He was a member of the Continental Congress, where he signed the Declaration of Independence. He also served as a brigadier general in the Pennsylvania state militia. Wilson later became an associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, from 1789 to 1798, and a professor of law at the University of Pennsylvania. Signed.

South Carolina

Pierce Butler (1744–1822) was born in County Carlow, Ireland, and came to America in 1758 as an officer in the British Army. After resigning his commission, he became a planter near Charleston, South Carolina. He served in the Continental Congress and was elected to the U.S. Senate, where he served from 1789 to 1796 and again from 1802 to 1804, as a Democratic-Republican. Signed.

Charles Pinckney (1757–1824) was born in Charleston, South Carolina, where he later practiced law. He served in the state House of Representatives, and fought in the Revolutionary War. After the war he was a member of the Continental Congress. He served several terms as governor of South Carolina and served in the U.S. Senate as a Democratic-Republican, from 1798 to 1801, when he became minister to Spain. He later returned to again serve in the state general assembly and as governor. Signed.

Charles Cotesworth Pinckney (1746–1825) was born in Charleston, South Carolina, a second cousin of Charles Pick­ney. As a child he went to England with his father, the colonial agent for South Carolina. He graduated from Christ Church College, Oxford, and studied law in London. Pinckney returned to South Carolina in 1769 and was elected to the colonial legislature. He chaired the local committee of safety, and became a colonel in the First South Carolina Regiment. When Charleston fell to the British in 1780, he was held prisoner until 1782. Pinckney later served in the South Carolina state legislature. From 1796 to 1798 he was minister to France. In 1800 he ran unsuccessfully for Vice President on the Federalist ticket. In 1804 and 1808 he was the Federalist candidate for President, but lost both elections. Signed.

John Rutledge (1739–1800) was born in Christ Church Parish, South Carolina. He studied law in London and practiced in Charleston, South Carolina. He was a member of the colonial legislature, a delegate to the Stamp Act Congress in 1765, and a member of the Continental Congress. He then became governor of South Carolina. Rutledge received the electoral vote of South Carolina for Vice President in 1789. He served as associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court from 1789 to 1791 and chief justice of South Carolina from 1791 to 1795. President Washington nominated him to be chief justice of the United States in 1795. He served briefly, but the Senate declined to confirm him, citing his intemperate political speeches. Signed.

Virginia

John Blair (1732–1800) was born in Virginia and graduated from the College of William and Mary. He studied law in London and practiced in Williamsburg, Virginia. Blair was a member of the Virginia House of Burgesses, served in the Virginia constitutional convention, and became a judge in the Virginia circuit courts. President Washington later appointed him an associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, where he served from 1789 until his death in 1800. Signed.

James Madison (1751–1836) was born in Port Conway, Virginia, and graduated from the College of New Jersey (later Princeton University). He was a member of a committee of safety, a member of the first state legislature of Virginia, and a member of the Continental Congress. He was one of the authors of The Federalist, in defense of the Constitution. From 1789 to 1797 he served in the U.S. House of Representatives, where he was the principal sponsor of the Bill of Rights. As a Democratic-Republican, he became secretary of state under President Thomas Jefferson from 1801 to 1809, and then was elected President, serving from 1809 to 1817. During his Presidency, British troops invaded and burned much of Washington, D.C. Signed.

George Mason (1725–1792) was born in Fairfax County, Virginia. Mason managed his family’s plantation, Gunston Hall, and became an officer in the Ohio Company, which speculated in land west of the Appalachians. His neighbor, George Washington, was a member of the company. When Washington was appointed commander in chief of the Continental Army, Mason took his seat in the Virginia legislature. There he took the lead in writing Virginia’s constitution and bill of rights. Mason also took part in the Mount Vernon Conference that negotiated a navigation agreement between Virginia and Maryland regarding the Potomac River. He opposed the Constitution because it lacked a bill of rights, and he declined to serve in the federal government. Did not sign.

James McClurg (1746–1823) was born near Hampton, Virginia, and graduated from the College of William and Mary. He studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh, and in London and Paris. McClurg returned to Williamsburg, Virginia, to be a professor of anatomy and medicine at William and Mary. He later served on Virginia’s executive council. Did not sign.

Edmond Randolph (1753–1813) was born in Williamsburg, Virginia, and graduated from the College of William and Mary. He studied law and practiced in Williamsburg. During the Revolutionary War he was an aide-de-camp to General Washington and attorney general of Virginia. He became a member of the Continental Congress and governor of Virginia. President Washington appointed Randolph to be the first attorney general. He held that post from 1789 until 1794, when he became secretary of state. Randolph was later a counsel for Vice President Aarom Burr during his treason trial. Did not sign.

George Washington (1732–1799) was born in Westmoreland County, Virginia. As a land surveyor and an officer in the Virginia militia, Washington became a lieutenant colonel and an aide-de-camp to General Edward Braddock during the French and Indian War. He went from the Virginia House of Burgesses to the Continental Congresses, which chose him as commander in chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolution. After the war, he resigned his commission and returned to his estate, Mount Vernon. Washington presided over the Constitutional Convention and was unanimously elected as the nation’s first President, serving from 1789 until 1797. Following his Presidency, he was re-appointed lieutenant general and commander of the U.S. Army. Signed.

George Wythe (1726–1806) was born in Elizabeth City County, Virginia, and attended the College of William and Mary. He studied law and practiced in Williamsburg, Virginia. He served in the colonial House of Burgesses, was a member of the Committee of Correspondence, and a member of the Continental Congress, where he signed the Declaration of Independence. He was also a professor of law at William and Mary and later led a private school in Richmond, Virginia. Did not sign.