A 1821 treaty between the United States and Spain sets the boundary between the U.S. and Spanish territories. In 1845, Congress accepts Texas as a state if it meets certain conditions, including the designation of specific boundary lines. The Texas legislature and a federal land commission disagree over approximately 1.5 million acres on the southern border. The U.S. government brings suit against Texas in federal court. Texas argues that the Eleventh Amendment bars the U.S. courts from resolving the dispute. In United States v. Texas, the Supreme Court holds that the deferral courts have jurisdiction in cases in which the U.S. government is a party.