After Texas wins its independence from Mexico in 1836, it applies for statehood. But President Andrew Jackson hesitates out of concern over northern opposition to adding more slave-holding states and over the possibility of starting a war with Mexico. Jackson, instead, signs a resolution recognizing Texas as an independent republic. In 1844, Secretary of State John C. Calhoun sends a treaty of annexation to the Senate, but it is defeated by a vote of 35-16. The next year, Congress annexes Texas by a resolution, which requires a majority vote in both houses, rather than two-thirds of the Senate.