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Equal Protection Guarantees One Person, One Vote


In many state legislatures, rural districts have far fewer voters than densely packed urban districts, yet each district has the same number of representatives. In Baker v. Carr, the U.S. Supreme Court orders federal courts to consider suits that challenge the apportionment of state legislatures, arguing that legislative bodies that are not apportioned equally violate the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. All legislative bodies (except the U.S. Senate) are held to a standard of one person, one vote, so that all districts in a legislative body must represent roughly the same number of constituents.