1969

1969

In Tinker v. Des Moines Independent School District, the Supreme Court rules that the suspension of students for wearing black armbands to protest the Vietnam War violates the students’ First Amendment rights to freedom of speech.

In Brandenburg v. Ohio, the Supreme Court expands the scope of political free speech and strikes down an Ohio law prohibiting speech that advocates violence as a means of political reform. The Court rules that political speech can be limited only if it can be proved that such speech is likely to incite immediate lawless action.

In Benton v. Maryland, the Supreme Court rules that the Fifth Amendment’s protection against double jeopardy is applicable to state governments through the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.