1688

1688

In England, during the Glorious Revolution, Parliament forces the Catholic James II to abdicate his throne in favor of the Protestant William and Mary. The new king and queen agree to the provisions in a written bill of rights, which shifts power from the monarch to the Parliament and extends rights—such as the right of petition, a limited form of free speech, and a prohibition against excessive fines—to the English population as a whole, including the colonists.