Advice and Consent

Article II of the Constitution provides that Presidents may nominate judges and high-level executive branch officers and negotiate treaties with the “advice and consent of the Senate.” The Constitution is clear about what constitutes “consent” (it requires a majority of the Senate to approve a nominee and two-thirds of the Senate to consent to a treaty) but ambiguous on “advice,” leading to frequent quarrels with Presidents who acted without consulting with the Senate. The House plays no role in the advice and consent process. – Donald Ritchie, Our Constitution