Timelines
Race and Education

  • 1849
    Parents Challenge Mass. School Segregation Laws

  • 1865
    Freedmen's Bureau Set Up To Aid Former Slaves

  • 1896
    Court Upholds 'Separate But Equal'

  • 1908
    Kentucky Law Prohibiting Integrated Schools Upheld

  • 1909
    NAACP Is Founded

  • 1938
    NAACP Wins Law School Admissions Challenge

  • 1948
    Court Rules Separate Law Program Is Not Equal

  • 1950
    Court Rejects Segregated Texas Law School

  • 1954
    'Separate But Equal' Education Ruled Unconstitutional
    Due Process Clause Used In School Segregation Case

  • 1955
    Court Addresses Remedies For School Desegregation

  • 1957
    Ark. Governor Defies Desegregation Order
    First Civil Rights Bill Since 1875 Passed

  • 1958
    Court Denies Arkansas Challenge To Integration Order

  • 1960
    University Of Mississippi Is Integrated

  • 1962
    State Universities In S. Carolina, Alabama Integrate

  • 1971
    Schools That Get Federal Funds Cannot Discriminate
    Busing Is Upheld As Acceptable Integration Strategy
    Court-Ordered School Desegregation Upheld

  • 1992
    Appeals Court Extends Supervision Of Topeka Schools

  • 1995
    Court Steps Back From Enforcing Integration Orders

  • 1996
    University Of Texas' Affirmative Action Program Rejected

  • 2000
    Florida Ends Affirmative Action In Public Education

  • 2003
    Court Rules On School's Affirmative Action Policies

  • 2004
    Texas A&M University Abolishes 'Legacy' Admissions

  • 2005
    Schools For Native Hawaiians Lose Ruling

  • 2007
    Court Strikes Down Integration Plans