Timelines
Affirmative Action

  • 1941
    Discrimination By Defense Contractors Barred

  • 1961
    JFK Calls For Government 'Affirmative Action'

  • 1964
    Johnson Signs Civil Rights Act Of 1964

  • 1965
    Johnson Outlines Affirmative Action Approach To Civil Rights
    Federal Contractors Ordered To Ensure Equality In Hiring

  • 1969
    Nixon Targets Fair Hiring In Construction

  • 1978
    University's Minority Quotas Struck Down

  • 1979
    Voluntary Affirmative Action Programs By Employers Approved

  • 1980
    Affirmative Action Requirement In Public Works Projects Upheld

  • 1986
    Affirmative Action Through Preferential Layoffs Ruled Unconstitutional

  • 1987
    Affirmative Action Under Title VII Expanded

  • 1989
    Court Overturns City Set-Aside Program

  • 1991
    Civil Rights Act Of 1964 Amended

  • 1995
    White House Issues Affirmative Action Guidelines
    Standards Tightened For Federal Affirmative Action Programs

  • 1996
    University Of Texas' Affirmative Action Program Rejected

  • 1997
    Calif. Ends All State-Sanctioned Affirmative Action

  • 1998
    Washington Ends All State-Sanctioned Affirmative Action

  • 2000
    Florida Ends Affirmative Action In Public Education

  • 2003
    Court Rules On School's Affirmative Action Policies

  • 2004
    Texas A&M University Abolishes 'Legacy' Admissions

  • 2005
    Schools For Native Hawaiians Lose Ruling

  • 2009
    White Firefighters Win Bias Case Over Test Results